FAST FOOD ADDICTION: A MAJOR PUBLIC HEALTH ISSUE
ARC Journal of Addiction, Vol. 4, Issue 2, 2019, pp. 1-11
“Unprocessed or minimally processed foods are whole foods in which the vitamins and nutrients are still intact. The food is in its natural (or nearly natural) state. Unprocessed or minimally processed foods would include carrots, apples, raw chicken, melon, and raw, unsalted nuts.
Processing changes a food from its natural state. Processed foods are essentially made by adding salt, oil, sugar, or other substances. Examples include canned fish or canned vegetables, fruits in syrup, and freshly made breads.
Some foods are highly processed or ultra-processed. They most likely have many added ingredients such as sugar, salt, fat, and artificial colors or preservatives. They may also contain additives like emulsifiers or stabilizers. Examples of these foods are frozen meals, soft drinks, hot dogs and cold cuts, fast food, packaged cookies, cakes, and salty snacks.” Source: Harvard Health Letter
The growing widespread use of fast food among Americans is of concern due to the high fat and energy intake, which may cause obesity and subsequently obesity related chronic diseases. Added fat sugar and salt create a taste that makes people crave these foods, a sensation that many described as an addiction. US fast food sales increased exponentially between 1970 and 2000, from $6 billion to $10 billion. During this time, obesity rates among US adults doubled and it is expected that 85% of US citizens will be affected by obesity by 2030.
Fast foods in particular are known to cause many of the chronic diseases that have become the leading causes of death in the United States. What are some of the effects of fast food on the body? Most of the fast foods contain a large amount of sugar, fats and carbs and less minerals and vitamins. This means that people are taking in large amounts of unhealthy calories in the shape of fast food which leads to weight gain and ultimately obesity. Obesity is linked to several long-term health conditions that include premature death, diabetes, heart disease, stroke, gall bladder disease, fatty liver, arthritis and joint disorders and some cancers. One study showed that consumption of fast foods greater than two times a week increased the risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Frequent consumption of fast foods was accompanied with overweight and abdominal fat, impaired insulin and glucose homeostasis, lipid and lipoprotein disorders, induction of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress.
Supersize Me was a 2004 American documentary film directed by and starring Morgan Spurlock, an American independent filmmaker. Spurlock’s film follows a 30-day period from February 1 to March 2, 2003, during which he ate only McDonald’s food. The results showed that his physician became concerned when his liver enzymes became alarmingly high and he had gained considerable weight in that short period of time.
A new study in PLOS Medicine finds eating unhealthy food is associated with a higher risk of developing cancer. People who ate the most junk food showed a higher risk of stomach, colorectal, and surprisingly lung cancers. Separately, men showed a higher risk of lung cancer and women showed a higher risk of liver and post-menopausal breast cancers. Nitrate and nitrite, which are abundant in processed meats are potential carcinogens found in breast, prostate, pancreas, and colorectal cancers along with non alcoholic fatty liver disease and insulin resistance.
Sugar overload – what happens in your body?
“20 minutes after drinking a soda, your blood sugar spikes, causing an insulin burst. Your liver responds to this by turning any sugar into fat. 40 minutes later, caffeine absorption from the soda is complete. Your pupils dilate; your blood pressure rises, and as a response your liver dumps more sugar into your bloodstream. 45 minutes later, your body ups your dopamine (a neurotransmitter) production stimulating the pleasure centers of your brain; this is physically the same way heroin works by the way.“
Fast food in particular was first popularized in the 1970s in the United States, which is today the largest fast food industry in the world. Fast food restaurants serve as popular sites for their meals eaten outside the home. Current approaches suggest that fast food restaurants should be required to clarify nutrition information such as calorie and fat content on their menu boards and on product packaging. Studies have shown mixed results as to whether consumers’ choices are affected by this information on packaged and fast foods.